I have the following question. My mother language is Bulgarian, my husband is French and we live in France. I am also fluent in English. We have a one-year-old son and I have already start thinking about the number of languages he needs to speak.

Currently I speak with him in Bulgarian and my husband in French. I would like to include the English as early as possible, but I have no idea when is the right time and how to do it. For example do you think it would work if I speak with him during the week in Bulgarian and during the weekend in English?

I hope I will be able to put him in French/English school when he is three years old but I would like to start with the English before that. I am looking forward to your opinion and advice.

Best regards,


Hello Denitsa,

Thank you for your question on how to raise your son to be trilingual.

You mention that you are thinking about the number of languages he “needs to speak” – this is a very important aspect of a child’s language learning. As you will be speaking Bulgarian and your husband French with your son, he will have a natural need to speak these languages. You live in France, so by time, French will most likely become his dominant language.

Until your son starts school, there is no real need for him to speak English – yes, you would like him to speak English, but from his point of view it is not a necessary language. I am bringing this up, as it is important for all parents to put themselves in the child’s position when it comes to choosing the language a child should learn. For a child to learn a language, the child should need and want to speak it.

Will you be the only person speaking Bulgarian to him, or do you have Bulgarian-speaking relatives or friends who your son will be in regular contact with? Will he stay with you until he starts attending the French/English school at the age of three? What I am trying to establish is how much exposure he will get to Bulgarian prior to starting school.

Are there any expectations from the school as to how much English your son should know when he starts? Just in case you haven’t already, I would recommend that you speak with the teachers to find out, so that you can set your goals accordingly. From what I know of similar schools, my presumption is that the school does not require much English knowledge, if any at all (the latter being more likely).

You can introduce English to your son through children’s songs, rhymes and play – I would not go down the route of trying to “teach” him English, but to do activities he enjoys in English. This you can start with straight away. You could arrange a dedicated English area in your home where you keep English books, listen to and sing songs in English. You could also have certain toys that you play with only when it is time for English.

I would at this point not switch to speaking English for full days with him. For the future, it is very important that he maintains Bulgarian as the main language between the two of you. If he is going to also continue his education in a bilingual school, he will soon become very fluent in English, and he might even prefer to use English with you instead of Bulgarian. The more he is used to speaking English with you, the bigger the chance that English would become the language of choice also for when he speaks with you. Of course, you can insist on sticking with Bulgarian, but if he is used to Bulgarian being the language to speak with mum, there is less of a chance that this situation would arise.

Good luck with your trilingual language journey – I am sure your son will be happily communicating in all three languages when he grows up.

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Kind regards